health experts say that if the COVID-19 epidemic is not successfully contained,
it could become a global pandemic, perhaps spreading to 80% of the world’s population.
With a 1% mortality rate, this would mean that 70 million people would
die of the disease. With a 2% mortality rate, the total number of deaths would
be twice that number, 140 million people. Comparable numbers of people have
died in the tragic wars and pandemics of the past. There is a serious danger
that it might happen again.
best way to avoid such a tragedy would be to quickly develop an inexpensive and
effective vaccine against the COVID-19 virus, and to distribute it very widely,
free of charge, with the support of government funds. The most promising
techniques for doing so, in my opinion, are the methods of monoclonal
antibodies and gene-splicing.
Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology was awarded to Niels Kai Jerne, Wolfgang
Köhler, and César Milstein for the development of the monoclonal antibodibody
technique. Jerne had been able to demonstrate that immune systems
contain very many strains of antibodies, each producing just a single antibody
against a single species of virus or bacterium. When a patient recovers from a
disease it is because the population producing exactly the right antibody has
been stimulated to grow large, and thus the recovered patient obtains immunity
to the disease.
Köhler and Milstein received their share of the 1984 Nobel
Prize for developing methods for cloning lymphocites that produce an antigen
that targets a specific virus or bacterium chosen by the researcher. In other
words, given a particular virus or bacterium Köhler and Milstein’s monoclonal
antibody technique can produce the correct antibody to fight it.
and mass-production of a vaccine
Now let us turn to the question of how gene-splicing
techniques can be used can be used to inexpensively mass-produce a vaccine
against the COVID-19 virus. Suppose that a culture of lymphocytes has been
established producing the correct antibody to fight against the virus. The next
step is to isolate the nucleotide sequence needed to produce the antibody. Then
the new recombinant DNA techniques discovered by Paul Berg, Stanley Cohen,
Herbert Boyer and others make it possible to produce the protein by
splicing this nucleic acis sequence into a plasmid of an easily-cultivated
bacterium, such as E-Coli. The modified E-Coli bacteri can then be cultivated
on a large scale, and they will produce large amounts of the vaccine protein.
Many proteins are today produced using gene.splicing
methods. These include human insulin, interferon, serum albumin, clotting
factors, vaccines, and protein hormones such as ACTH, human growth factor and
leuteinizing hormone. One of Denmark’s major industries today is the production
of enzymes, hormones and vaccines using the gene-splicing methods just
Balancing dangers in
We know with certainty that if a vaccine against the
COVID-19 virus is not developed quickly and distributed widely, enormous
numbers of people will die. Therefore, balancing dangers against each other,
and choosing the path most likely to result in a minimum of fatalities, it
seems logical to remove some of the restrictions that normally block the
rapid development of vaccines. Firstly, the profit motive must be kept
out of the picture. Public funds must be used for research. Secondly,
prohibitions against testing on humans must be temporarily lifted. Thirdly, the
requirement of years of testing before widespread distribution of the vaccine
must be temporarily lifted. And finally, government funds must be used to make
the COVID-19 vaccine free for everyone.
*John Scales Avery, Ph.D., who was part of a
group that shared the 1995 Nobel Peace Prizefor their work in organizing the
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, is a member of the TRANSCEND Network and Associate Professor
Emeritus at the H.C. Ørsted Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He is
chairman of both the Danish National Pugwash Group and the Danish Peace Academy
andreceived his training in theoretical physics and theoretical chemistry at
M.I.T., the University of Chicago and the University of London. Article
provided to Other News by the author on March 16, 2020
US allegedly wants to recruit German vaccine
According to a report, US President Donald Trump is offering
German scientists a lot of money if they come to the US. He also wants a
coronavirus vaccine “only for the USA.” EURACTIV’s media partner Der Tagesspiegel reports.
The corona crisis has led to an indirect but tangible
economic policy dispute between the US and Germany. As reported by the Welt
am Sonntag, citing government contacts, US President Donald Trump is
trying to lure German scientists working on a potential corona vaccine to the
US with large financial contributions as well as to secure the drug exclusively
for his country.
In response to a request from Reuters, the German
Ministry of Health confirmed that the US government is interested in the
Tübingen-based company CureVac, which is working on developing a coronavirus
“We confirm the report in the Welt am Sonntag,” a Ministry
spokesperson said. The Ministry of Health is also quoted as saying that the
German government wants a vaccine to be developed in Germany and Europe.
According to the newspaper report, the US president is
offering a large sum of money to secure the company’s exclusive work. Trump is
doing everything to get a vaccine for the USA, he said. “But only for the
United States,” the German government noted.
CureVac is working together with the federally-owned Paul
Ehrlich Institute for Vaccines and Biomedical Drugs to produce a vaccine
against COVID-19. The report states that representatives of the German
government are now in negotiations with the company.
On its website, CureVac reports that Daniel Menichella,
chairman of the board of directors, met with Trump, Vice President Mike Pence,
members of the coronavirus task force, and other high-ranking pharmaceutical
and biotech managers at the invitation of the White House at the beginning of
In the meeting, they discussed strategies and possibilities
for the rapid development and production of a vaccine. “We are very confident
that we will be able to develop an effective vaccine candidate within a few
months,” Menichella is quoted on the website.
On Friday, CureVac co-founder and board member Florian von
der Mülbe told Reuters that the company had started research with a large
number of potential vaccines and is now selecting the two best for clinical
trials. The company hopes to develop an experimental vaccine by June or July to
receive approval for human trials.
“The German government is very interested in vaccines and
active substances against the novel coronavirus being developed in Germany and
Europe,” a spokesperson for the Ministry of Health confirmed to the newspaper.
“In this regard, the government is in intensive discussions
with the company CureVac.” Germany is trying to keep the company with financial
offers, the newspaper reported, citing sources in the government. The company
did not want to comment for the original story in the newspaper Welt am
Sonntag. [AFP, Reuters]
Edited by Zoran Radosavljevic translated
by Sarah Lawton