By John Scales Avery*

The urgent need for a vaccine

Public health experts say that if the COVID-19 epidemic is not successfully contained, it could become a global pandemic, perhaps spreading to 80% of the world’s population. With a 1% mortality rate, this would mean that 70 million people would die of the disease. With a 2% mortality rate, the total number of deaths would be twice that number, 140 million people. Comparable numbers of people have died in the tragic wars and pandemics of the past. There is a serious danger that it might happen again.

Perhaps the best way to avoid such a tragedy would be to quickly develop an inexpensive and effective vaccine against the COVID-19 virus, and to distribute it very widely, free of charge, with the support of government funds. The most promising techniques for doing so, in my opinion, are the methods of monoclonal antibodies and gene-splicing.

Monoclonal antibodies

The 1984 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology was awarded to Niels Kai Jerne, Wolfgang Köhler, and César Milstein for the development of the monoclonal antibodibody technique. Jerne had been able to demonstrate that immune systems contain very many strains of antibodies, each producing just a single antibody against a single species of virus or bacterium. When a patient recovers from a disease it is because the population producing exactly the right antibody has been stimulated to grow large, and thus the recovered patient obtains immunity to the disease.

Köhler and Milstein received their share of the 1984 Nobel Prize for developing methods for cloning lymphocites that produce an antigen that targets a specific virus or bacterium chosen by the researcher. In other words, given a particular virus or bacterium Köhler and Milstein’s monoclonal antibody technique can produce the correct antibody to fight it.


Gene-splicing techniques and mass-production of a vaccine

Now let us turn to the question of how gene-splicing techniques can be used can be used to inexpensively mass-produce a vaccine against the COVID-19 virus. Suppose that a culture of lymphocytes has been established producing the correct antibody to fight against the virus. The next step is to isolate the nucleotide sequence needed to produce the antibody. Then the new recombinant DNA techniques discovered by Paul Berg, Stanley Cohen, Herbert Boyer and others make it  possible to produce the protein by splicing this nucleic acis sequence into a plasmid of an easily-cultivated bacterium, such as E-Coli. The modified E-Coli bacteri can then be cultivated on a large scale, and they will produce large amounts of the vaccine protein.



Many proteins are today produced using gene.splicing methods. These include human insulin, interferon, serum albumin, clotting factors, vaccines, and protein hormones such as ACTH, human growth factor and leuteinizing hormone. One of Denmark’s major industries today is the production of enzymes, hormones and vaccines using the gene-splicing methods just described.

Balancing dangers in an emergency

We know with certainty that if a vaccine against the COVID-19 virus is not developed quickly and distributed widely, enormous numbers of people will die. Therefore, balancing dangers against each other, and choosing the path most likely to result in a minimum of fatalities, it seems logical to remove some of the  restrictions that normally block the rapid development of vaccines.  Firstly, the profit motive must be kept out of the picture. Public funds must be used for research. Secondly, prohibitions against testing on humans must be temporarily lifted. Thirdly, the requirement of years of testing before widespread distribution of the vaccine must be temporarily lifted. And finally, government funds must be used to make the COVID-19 vaccine free for everyone.


*John Scales Avery, Ph.D., who was part of a group that shared the 1995 Nobel Peace Prizefor their work in organizing the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, is a member of the TRANSCEND Network and Associate Professor Emeritus at the H.C. Ørsted Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He is chairman of both the Danish National Pugwash Group and the Danish Peace Academy andreceived his training in theoretical physics and theoretical chemistry at M.I.T., the University of Chicago and the University of London.  Article provided to Other News by the author on March 16, 2020



US allegedly wants to recruit German vaccine researchers

Der Tagesspiegel   

According to a report, US President Donald Trump is offering German scientists a lot of money if they come to the US. He also wants a coronavirus vaccine “only for the USA.” EURACTIV’s media partner Der Tagesspiegel reports.

The corona crisis has led to an indirect but tangible economic policy dispute between the US and Germany. As reported by the Welt am Sonntag, citing government contacts, US President Donald Trump is trying to lure German scientists working on a potential corona vaccine to the US with large financial contributions as well as to secure the drug exclusively for his country.

In response to a request from Reuters, the German Ministry of Health confirmed that the US government is interested in the Tübingen-based company CureVac, which is working on developing a coronavirus vaccine.

“We confirm the report in the Welt am Sonntag,” a Ministry spokesperson said. The Ministry of Health is also quoted as saying that the German government wants a vaccine to be developed in Germany and Europe.

According to the newspaper report, the US president is offering a large sum of money to secure the company’s exclusive work. Trump is doing everything to get a vaccine for the USA, he said. “But only for the United States,” the German government noted.

CureVac is working together with the federally-owned Paul Ehrlich Institute for Vaccines and Biomedical Drugs to produce a vaccine against COVID-19. The report states that representatives of the German government are now in negotiations with the company.

On its website, CureVac reports that Daniel Menichella, chairman of the board of directors, met with Trump, Vice President Mike Pence, members of the coronavirus task force, and other high-ranking pharmaceutical and biotech managers at the invitation of the White House at the beginning of March.

In the meeting, they discussed strategies and possibilities for the rapid development and production of a vaccine. “We are very confident that we will be able to develop an effective vaccine candidate within a few months,” Menichella is quoted on the website.

On Friday, CureVac co-founder and board member Florian von der Mülbe told Reuters that the company had started research with a large number of potential vaccines and is now selecting the two best for clinical trials. The company hopes to develop an experimental vaccine by June or July to receive approval for human trials.

“The German government is very interested in vaccines and active substances against the novel coronavirus being developed in Germany and Europe,” a spokesperson for the Ministry of Health confirmed to the newspaper.

“In this regard, the government is in intensive discussions with the company CureVac.” Germany is trying to keep the company with financial offers, the newspaper reported, citing sources in the government. The company did not want to comment for the original story in the newspaper Welt am Sonntag. [AFP, Reuters]

Edited by Zoran Radosavljevic translated by  Sarah Lawton


Annex 2:

Coronavirus: What’s happening in Europe