AI has gone
from a science-fiction dream to a critical part of our everyday lives
Intelligence has changed our world
creating effective AI, could be the biggest event in the history of our
civilisation. Or the worst. We just don’t know. So we cannot know if we will be
infinitely helped by AI, or ignored by it and side-lined, or conceivably
destroyed by it. (Legendary physicist
Intelligence (AI) is the term to describe a machine’s learning, logic,
reasoning, perception and creativity which were once considered unique to
humans but now replicated by technology and use in every industry.
Intelligence is the use of computer science programming to imitate human
thought and action by analysing data and surroundings, solving or anticipating
problems, learning of self-teaching or adapting to a variety of tasks. AI can
relieve humans of various repetitive tasks. The technology can learn work once
and repeat it, as many times as desired by its human programmer. AI makes it
possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and
perform human-like tasks, from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars,
which rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing.
objective of Artificial Intelligence, or the stimulation of cognitive
behaviour, is to enable computers to perform such intellectual tasks as
decision making, problem solving, perception, understanding human communication
in any language and translating among them.
AI is not only a
technology; it is more and more part of our daily lives. Every day we are
witnessing new kinds of developments in each sphere of life, from politics to
economics. Thanks to technology, Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of
Things (IoT) we can easily access many points we could not reach before.
research we do on the Internet to the goods that come to our door with a single
click, technology is directly in our lives. Artificial Intelligence has
revolutionised technology in all industries and solved many problems faced by
AI is the
simulation of human intelligence processes by machines especially computer
systems. These processes include learning, reasoning and self-correction. Some
of the applications of Artificial Intelligence include expert systems, speech,
recognition and machine vision.
(ML) is an application of Artificial Intelligence that provides systems the
ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being
explicitly programmed. ML focuses on the development of computer programs that
can access data and use them to learn for themselves. ML is the concept that a
computer program can learn and adapt to new data without human intervention. ML
is a field of Artificial Intelligence that keeps a computer’s built-in
algorithms up to date and allows the machine to identify data and built
predictions around them. ML is useful in parsing immense amounts of information
and can be applied in a variety of areas, such as in investment, lending,
organising news, fraud detection and more. The incorporation of ML in the
digital-savvy era is endless as businesses and governments become more aware of
the opportunities that Big Data presents.
players in the securities market, financial researchers, asset managers and
individual sectors scour through mountains of information from different
companies around the world to make profitable decisions. An asset management
firm may employ ML in its investment analysis and research area.
differences between AI and ML are:
Artificial Intelligence will go for finding the
optimal solution, and leads to intelligence or wisdom;
Machine Learning will go only for the solution,
whether it is optimal or not, and leads to knowledge.
developments in Artificial Intelligence are chatbots, smart cars and IoT
devices. The healthcare, banking, logistics and travel sectors all use
Artificial Intelligence to provide a superior experience.
A new kind of
artificially intelligent chatbot Replika is designed to learn from a person’s
writing style and social media feeds, as well as the content of conversations
it has with the person. In fact, AI systems have been developed to understand
open form content like natural language, social media and email responses.
solutions and the capabilities of Artificial Intelligence are developing very
rapidly, and AI systems have the ability to understand human emotions and
respond to them.
One type of AI
that is quickly finding its way into most consumers’ homes is the voice
assistant such as Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, Google’s Assistant and
most advanced human-like robot Sophia personifies people’s dreams for the
future of AI. Sofia is also a framework for cutting edge robotics and AI
research, particularly for understanding human-robot interactions and their
potential service and entertainment applications.
Sophia is marketed
as a “social robot” that can mimic behaviour and induce feelings of love in
humans. The AI program analyses conversations and extracts data that allows it
to improve responses in the future.
virtual assistant developed by Amazon is learning faster than any other
assistant, and can also control several smart devices, using itself as a home
automation system. Alexa will typically take a few weeks to learn its owner’s
habits using their smart home devices. Using AI technology in the cloud, Alexa
builds up a picture of its owners’ routines, paying attention to the time of
day, weather patterns and even the changing of the season.
Physical AI is
the new frontier in robotics research and will have a major impact in the
decades to come. Skills development in Physical AI could give birth to lifelike
intelligent robots, and these robots would be designed to look and behave like
humans or animals, while possessing intellectual capabilities normally associated
with biological organisms (like the humanoid robot named Adam in Ian McEwan’s
novel Machines Like Me).
In the future,
these robots could help humans at work and in daily living, performing tasks
that are dangerous for humans and assisting in medicine, caregiving, security,
building and industry.
Professor Mirko Kovac of Swiss-Federal Laboratories for Materials, Science and
Technology Centre of Robotics has said: “The development of robot “bodies” has
significantly lagged behind the development of robot “brains” unlike digital
AI, which has been intensively explored in the last few decades; breathing
physical intelligence into them has remained comparatively unexplored.”
lifelike robots could be made possible by including Physical Artificial
Intelligence in the higher education system, developing skills and
multidisciplinary AI search and bring us closer to redefining human-robot and
robot environment interaction.
AI has many
advantages: reduction in human error, risk-taking in place of humans, 24/7
availability, help in repetitive jobs, digital assistance and faster
If coded properly,
AI would have a lower error rate than humans. It would have incredible
precision, accuracy and speed, and would not be affected by hostile
environments, thus able to complete dangerous tasks, explore in space and
endure problems that would injure or kill people.
dramatically improve the efficiency of our workplaces and eliminate the
necessity for humans to perform tedious tasks. When Artificial Intelligence
takes over repetitive or dangerous tasks, it frees up humans, allowing them to
perform tasks that involve creativity, and leaves enough room and time for the
interpersonal aspects of their lives.
people’s lives more efficient, powering many programs and services that help
them do everyday things, such as connecting with friends and using an email
program or ride share service.
examples of AI in daily life are travel navigation, smart home devices,
smartphones, drones and smart cars. Tesla electric cars are a prime example of
how Artificial Intelligence is impacting people’s daily lives, while companies
like Amazon and Walmart are investing heavily in drone delivery programs.
industry is using AI to analyse data to find the best avenues for investing
money. Banking and the finance industry rely heavily on Artificial
Intelligence, taking full advantage of this technology in customer service,
fraud protection and more. A simple example is the automated email that a
person receives from the bank whenever an out of the ordinary transaction is
We are using AI
in navigation and travel also, whether we are booking a flight ticket, or using
Google or Apple maps for navigating or calling Uber.
agricultural industry, some artificial robots are capable of harvesting in a
faster, higher way than humans.
We can expect a
totally different future for healthcare, with operations being performed by a
robot surgeon. A physical surgeon will only be a spectator. Nanotechnology
engineers have 3D-printed a lifelike functional blood vessel network that could
pave the way towards artificial organs and regenerative therapies.
can be used in health and educational systems to support therapists and can be
programmed to practise vocabulary with children.
algorithms could have a function in supporting the rule of law in the criminal
justice system. AI could be used to predict crime and, thanks to AI, we will
see judgments from which human bias and the emotional way of thinking of judges
have been removed.
forecasting has given us a much-needed insight into extreme climatic events and
AI has aptly demonstrated its indispensability in analysing smart disaster
Intelligence and the global use of Big Tech, facial recognition, cybernetics,
robotics, drones, 5G, smartphones, cryptocurrencies, bio-digital social
programs, autonomous weapons, social manipulation, invasion of privacy, and
tracking of information without consent could have potentially harmful effects.
The dangers that
AI can pose in the future are:
Invasion of privacy. Privacy is a basic human
right, but AI may lead to a loss of privacy in the future. Even today it is
possible to track us easily. Latest technologies like facial recognition can
identify any individual in a crowd and all security cameras are equipped with
it. The data gathering abilities of AI also mean that a timeline of your daily
activities can be created by accessing a person’s data from various social
networking sites. China is currently working on a Social Credit System that
will be powered by AI which will give all Chinese citizens a score based on how
they behave. This may include defaulting on loans, parking in the wrong places,
smoking in non-smoking areas, playing loud music on trains, etc. Having a low
score may mean difficulties in finding employment, a ban of enrolling children
in determined schools, a ban on travel, or having a lower social status.
Autonomous weapons. These “killer robots” are
military robots and drones that can search their targets and aim independently
according to pre-programmed instructions. Almost all technically advanced
countries in the world are developing such robots. Future wars would not be
fought by humans, and the use of autonomous lethal weapons would be inevitable.
But what if such weapons cannot distinguish between their targets and innocent
people? A serious problem would be if these killer robots were developed by
governments that do not care about human life.
Loss of human jobs. As AI becomes more advanced
it will obviously take over jobs that were once performed by humans. According
to a report by the McKinsey Global Institute, around 800 million jobs could be
lost worldwide due to automation by 2030. Robots do not need to be paid, so the
owners of AI-driven companies would make all the profits, increasing the gap
between the rich and the poor even further.
AI terrorism. Drones are already being used in
terror attacks and autonomous vehicles could be also used to deliver and
explode bombs or create guns that could track movement without any human help.
Artificial Intelligence has progressed rapidly,
and the future is arriving faster than the predictions shown in the film Minority Report set in 2054. AI will be better than humans
in translating languages by 2024, selling goods by 2031 and conducting surgeries
by 2053. AI will become an integral part of our lives and it is time to prepare
for the age of AI by investing in education and training. The choice remains
ours to upgrade our skills and be part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
*Nadia Batok, political scientist,
international relations. She has a degree in Political Sciences,
International Relations. She speaks and writes in English, Italian, Serbian and
Croatian, Macedonian and a basic French.